Exceed high speed treatment and superprecision technology

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One, technical overview exceeds high speed processing technique is to point to use the cutting tool that exceeds hard data, excise precision of rate, treatment and the contemporary processing technique that process quality through raising cutting speed and feed speed to improve data greatly. The workpiece material that because differ,exceeds the cutting speed range that high speed machines, different cutting kind and different. Current, think commonly, exceed high speed cutting of all sorts of material cut fast limits to be: Aluminium alloy already exceeded 1600m/min, cast-iron for 1500m/min, exceed heat-resisting nickel alloy to amount to 300m/min, titanium alloy amounts to 150~1000m/min, fiber increases plastic for 2000~9000m/min. Of all sorts of cutting craft cut fast limits to be: Turning 700~7000m/min, milling 300~6000m/min, auger cut 200~1100m/min, grinding 250m/s above is waited a moment. Exceed high speed processing technique to basically include: Exceed high speed cutting and grinding mechanism research, exceed unit of high speed main shaft to make a technology, exceed unit of high speed feed to make a technology, fast treatment uses freeboard cutting tool and grind a production technology, exceed high speed treatment is online and automatic detect wait with control technology. Superprecision is to point to currently by the dimension precision prep above of treatment spare parts 0.

1 μ M, ra is less than exterior surface roughness 0.

025 μ M, and the resolution that uses precision of machine tool fixed position and repeatability prep above 0.

The processing technique of 01 μ M, also say for inferior micron class processing technique, and to accept rice class processing technique develops. Superprecision technology basically includes: The mechanism of superprecision studies, the equipment of superprecision makes technical research, superprecision tool and blade grind technical research, exceed nicety to measure technology and research of error compensation technology, superprecision work ambient conditions studies. 2, the current situation and trend of domestic and international development 1. The research that exceeds high speed to machine industrial developed country to exceeding high speed starts early, the level is high. In this technology, the country that is in lead position basically has Germany, Japan, United States, Italy to wait. In exceeding high speed processing technique, exceeding hard data tool is the premise that implementation exceeds high speed to machine and precondition, exceeding technology of grinding of high speed cutting is contemporary freeboard the technique of fast treatment, and machine tool of high speed numerical control and machining center are the crucial equipment that implementation exceeds high speed to machine. Current, cutting tool material already provided steel from carbon steel and alloy labour, via material of steel of high-speed steel, hard alloy, pottery and porcelain, develop diamond of Ji Jujing of making synthetic diamond (PCD) , cubic nitrogen changes nitrogen of cubic metre of boracic Ji Jujing to change boron (CBN) . Cutting rate also blazes new trails as cutting tool material and raise 1200m/min above from the 12m/min previously. Past of emery wheel material basically is to use corundum department, carborundum department to wait, american G. 50 age of E company synthesize a respect to gain a success artificially in diamond above all, 60 time develop successful CBN above all again. Linear velocity of 90 time pottery and porcelain or emery wheel of colophony bond CBN, diamond emery wheel can amount to 125m/s, some can amount to 150m/s, and monolayer eletroplates CBN emery wheel can amount to 250m/s. Because this somebody thinks, as new cutting tool (grind) the ceaseless development of material, 10 years cutting rate should rise every other one times, subsonic speed and even exceed what velocity of sound machines to appear too won't distant. In freeboard respect of fast cutting technology, vought company of the United States developed to exceed high speed milling machine 1976, top rotate speed achieved 20000rpm. Particularly conspicuous is, engineering of production of university of industry of confederative Germany Darmstadt and machine tool institute (PTW) begin to undertake mechanism studies exceeding high speed cutting systematically from 1978, undertake to all sorts of metals and metalloid material high speed cutting experiments, confederative Germany organized a few enterprises to offer 2000 much mark to support this research work, since the later period in 80 time, exceed machine tool of high speed cutting commercially to appear ceaselessly, exceed high speed machine tool from onefold freeboard development of fast milling machine becomes freeboard fast car milling machine, auger milling machine and even all sorts of high speed machining center. The freeboard that Switzerland, England, Japan also rolls out him in succession fast machine tool. Main shaft of the HG400III that Japanese day establishs machine of essence of life machining center is highest turn up 36000~40000r/min, workbench moves quickly speed is 36~40m/min. Speed of shift of feed of machining center of the HVM800 of the American Ingersoll firm that uses linear electric machinery high speed is 60m/min. In high speed and freeboard respect of fast grinding technology, people developed high speed, freeboard grinding of grinding of fast grinding, deep-felt delay feed, deep-felt fast feed (namely HEDG) , multichip emery wheel and much emery wheel wear a lot of high speed such as grinding efficient grinding, these high speed are efficient grinding technology receives great progress and application in nearly 20 years. Company of German Guehring Automation was made 1983 gave the grinding machine of emery wheel of 60kw puissant CBN that the world provides power the first times most at that time, vs achieves 140~160m/s. German A enjoys industrial university, Bremen university to be in efficient the research respect that grinds greatly obtained the world's accepted Gao Shuiping positive result, be in actively it is alloy of aluminium alloy, titanium, difficult to wait because of health nickel alloy treatment data side undertakes efficient the research that grinds greatly. Grinding of high speed of emery wheel of CBN of application of German Bosch company processes gear tooth form, use eletroplate the craft that CBN emery wheel exceeds high speed grinding to replace gear hobbing of former beard classics and shave tine treatment, process the gear tooth form of 16MnCr5 material, vs = 155m/s, its Q achieves 811mm3/mm.

S, high speed of application of German Kapp company wears treatment pump greatly kind spare parts deep chamfer, workpiece material is 100Cr6 bearing steel, use eletroplate CBN emery wheel, vs achieves 300m/s, 140mm3/mm of its Q` = .

S, in grinding treatment, but the blade pump rotor after quenching 10 one second outfit is placed, grind a rotor chamfer, speed of feed of the workpiece when grinding is 1.

2m/min, average man-hour of every rotor treatment needs 10 seconds only, groovy wide precision can assure to be in 2 μ M, an emery wheel can process 1300 work. At present practical grinding speed already amounted to Japanese industry 200m/s, research center of grinding of American Conneticut university, its are inadvertently 1996 outside on grinder of round high speed, speed of grinding of highest emery wheel amounts to 250m/s. In recent years, if the each key domain that our country exceeds high speed to machine in high speed is unit of main shaft of high-power high speed, tall add decelerate the respect such as bearing of scroll of linear feed electric machinery, pottery and porcelain also had more research, but overall level still has bigger difference with abroad, must rouse oneself to catch up. 2. Superprecision superprecision technology is in the country of lead position to have the United States, England and Japan in the world. The superprecision technology of these countries not only level of overall whole set is high, and commercial rate is very high also. The United States is to begin superprecision technology to study the earliest country, also be the country that heretofore is in world banner standing. Be in early 50 time end, wait for the need that sophisticated technology admits as a result of spaceflight, the United States developed diamond cutting tool above all exceed accurate cutting technology, call " SPDT technology " (Single Point Diamond Turning) or " small inch of technology " (1 small inch of = 0.

025 μ M) , developed corresponding air bearing main shaft exceed accurate machine tool. Use at machining missile of illuminator of laser nuclear fusion, tactics and manned airship to use spherical blame spherical and large part is waited a moment. Like American LLL lab and Y - 12 factories are below support of American energy department, in July 1983 development succeeds large exceed DTM of accurate diamond lathe - 3 model, can this machine tool machine the largest part? All sorts of metal illuminator that the laser nuclear fusion of 4500kg of 2100mm, weight uses, infra-red device uses binoculars of spare parts, large celestial body (include X light celestial body is telescopic) etc. The treatment precision of this machine tool can achieve appearance error to be 28nm (radius) , circularity and flatness are 12.

5nm, treatment surface surface roughness is Ra4.

2nm. The LODTM that this machine tool and this lab developed 1984 is large exceeding accurate lathe still is now together the large diamond with highest, highest precision exceeds the accepted technical level on the world accurate lathe. In superprecision technology domain, the Kelanfeierde that England overcomes place of institute of technology of heart of orchid humble Er to belong to is accurate project institute (abbreviation CUPE) enjoy taller reputation, it is one of research centers of accurate project on current world, it is the distinctive delegate of level of British superprecision technology. The Nanocentre that produces like CUPE (accept rice machining center) can undertake exceeding accurate turning already, contain wheelhead again, also can undertake exceeding accurate grinding, the appearance precision that processes work can be amounted to 0.

1 μ M, ra<10nm of exterior surface roughness. Japan is opposite to the research of superprecision technology at the United States, flower for start later, but the country with the rapiddest development of technology of the superprecision on current world. Japanese research is different from the United States mainly, former be with civilian taste application to be main target, latter is with developing national defence sophisticated technology is main goal. The small-sized, exceeds part of small-sized electron and optics superprecision technology that so Japan is using in equipment of sound, smooth, image, office respect, it is more advanced with what have an advantage, exceeded the United States even. The superprecision technology of our country had great progress in 70 time evening, 80 time metaphase appeared to have world level exceed accurate machine tool and part. Institute of Beijing machine tool is one of main units that home has superprecision technology studies, develop those who gave a variety of different types to exceed accurate machine tool, component and relevant high accuracy to check an instrument to wait, amount to like precision 0.

The accurate bearing of 025 μ M, JCS - 027 exceed accurate lathe, JCS - 031 exceed accurate milling machine, JCS - 035 exceed nicety lathe, exceed sensitization of system of accurate lathe numerical control, copycat to rouse treatment illuminator of laser of machine tool, infra-red high-power, exceed accurate vibration - displacement is measured small, reached home banner, international is advanced level. 303 places exceed aerospace industry ministry coordinate of accurate main shaft, granite measured the respect such as machine to undertake thorough research and product are produced. Harbin Institute of Technology exceeds crystal of cutting tool of accurate cutting, diamond in diamond directional grind with blade, emery wheel of diamond small pink electroanalysises the respect such as online nap technology had fruitful research. Tsinghua university is reached in treatment of equipment of integrated circuit superprecision, disk detect workbench of equipment, small displacement, exceed nicety arenaceous belt grinding and grind cast, emery wheel of diamond small pink exceeds accurate grinding, blame the circle is sectional exceeded the respect such as accurate cutting to have thorough research, corresponding product comes out. In addition institute of machinery of nicety of optics of Changchun of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in grain industry college, Shenyang the university of science and technology of institute of tool of factory of the first machine tool, Chengdu, national defence research that had this one field, successful. But as a whole, our country is in dependability of the efficiency of superprecision, precision, especially norms (large size) compare with respect of sex of technical form a complete set and abroad, ask actually to compare with production, still have quite big difference. Trend of superprecision technology development is: To more high accuracy, more efficient way develops; To large change, miniature changes directional development; Detect to treatment unifinication way develops; Machine tool to muti_function modular way develops; Discuss ceaselessly agree with the new principle of superprecision, new method, new material. At the beginning of 21 centuries will be superprecision technology 10 years achieve and finish Namijia the key of work skill 10 years. 3, " 15 " target and main research content 1. The target exceeds high speed treatment to realize industrial application basically to 2005, main shaft is highest turn up 15000r/min, feed speed amounts to 40~60m/min, speed of emery wheel grinding amounts to 100~150m/s; Superprecision comes true basically inferior micron class treatment, strengthen accept rice form research of processing technique application, achieve international level of 90 time initial stage. 2. Main research content (1) mechanism of fast cutting, grinding studies freeboard. Machine all sorts of process, cutting grinding phenomena to exceeding high speed cutting and grinding, all sorts of be machined function of fast cutting grinding and the craft parameter that exceed grinding of high speed cutting optimize material and the freeboard that all sorts of cutting tool wear a stuff etc undertake the system studies. (2) exceed unit of high speed main shaft to make a technology consider. The research of main shaft material, structure, bearing and development; Character of trends of main shaft system and hot condition sex study; Flexible the research of stretch bearing technology of main shaft and its bearing; Of main shaft system lubricate to study with cooling technology; The much target of main shaft optimizes research of design technology, fictitious design technology; Main shaft changes knife technology research. (3) exceed unit of high speed feed to make a technology consider. The development of annulus of chip of high speed position; Nicety communicates the research of servo and electric machinery; Systematic inertia and parameter of servo electric machinery match the research of the relation; Mechanical drive catenary is static, use stiffness research; Add decelerate to dominate technical research; Accurate ball guide screw deputy reach big lead guide screw deputy development. (4) exceed high speed treatment to be ground with cutting tool reach material to consider. Research develops all sorts of exceeding high speed is machined (include difficult treatment material) grind a material and preparation technology with cutting tool, make the cutting speed of cutting tool reachs foreign industry developed country the level of 90 time end, grind provided grinding rate to achieve 150m/s above. (5) technology of fast treatment test studies freeboard. The functional place such as unit to exceeding high speed to machine unit of machine tool main shaft, feed system and machine tool bearing and auxiliary and unit system and drive control monitoring technology of the system, provide to exceeding high speed treatment to be ground with cutting tool wear away and damaged, grind quality of surface of the condition such as provided nap and precision of treatment of the workpiece in exceeding high speed to machine a process, treatment to wait for online monitoring technology to undertake study. (6) the treatment mechanism research of superprecision. "Developmental treatment " reach " surmount a gender to machine " mechanism research; Microcosmic surface integrality studies; In exceed all sorts of pair of material inside exact scope (include to be ground to provide data by treatment material and cutting tool) treatment process, phenomenon, function and craft parameter have suggestive research. (7) superprecision equipment makes technical research. Accept rice class exceeds accurate lathe project to change research; Exceed accurate grinder research; Crucial foundation, if shafting, slideway is servo of deputy, numerical control, small the research such as displacement device; Exceed assembly of accurate machine tool to make technical research. (8) superprecision cutting tool, grind reach blade to grind technical research. Diamond cutting tool and blade grind emery wheel of technology, diamond small pink and research of its nap technology. (9) nicety measures technology and research of error compensation technology. Accept rice form is standard with deliver a system to build; Accept rice class measures an instrument to consider; Dimensional error compensates technical research; Measure compositive technology research. (10) research of superprecision work ambient conditions. Exceed nicety to measure, charge lukewarm system, pass the time in a leisurely way brace up technical research; Exceed accurate purifying device, new-style special type discharges the research of bit unit and relevant technology.

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